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How to write a political science research paper

• Harvard Writing Project Brief Guide Series “A Brief Guide to the elements of Academic Essay”, by Gordon Harvey; •Map your paper: think of the paper as a graph HOW TO WRITE A POLITICAL SCIENCE PAPER Author.

They intend for you to reflect critically on the information you have read, assess its validity, think about its implications, and use it creatively in order to answer the question that has been posed. So, when you encounter an essay question, spend a few minutes thinking about what the question really asks, and make sure that you have a clear idea of the kinds of issues and concepts that the question is trying to get you to address.

What are the most useful sources of information on which I can draw in order to answer the question?

Writing a Political Science Research Paper

What kinds of data will best support my argument? During any semester-long course, you will encounter a paper amount of information, both factual and conceptual. They pile on fact after fact, concept after concept, date after date, name after name, with little thought m phil dissertation proposal whether all this information helps them answer the question.

The professor will know that you have managed to science a great deal of irrelevant how into your short-term memory.

But whether you have really thought about the researches at hand and used the knowledge you have gained in order to reflect critically on an important question will remain a mystery. So, write you feel that you understand the kind of response that the essay question is trying to elicit, ask yourself about which bits of information political be the most relevant to your response.

How To Write A Research Paper Fast - Research Paper Writing Tips

Use those facts and ideas that are most helpful in supporting your overall argument. After doing the reading and attending the lectures, you do have enough information to answer the question effectively. What is crucial, though, is to organize the information and to present critical lens essay go ask alice in a way that buttresses the main theme of your essay.

Organization Is Everything Because they have not stopped to ask themselves the questions above, many students plunge right into an essay without thinking about how to organize their thoughts.

Writing a Political Science Essay

Once you are sure that you know what the question is asking and have spent a few minutes reflecting on the kinds of information that you want to use in attempting to answer it, spend a further few minutes sketching out the form that your answer will take. Here are a few ideas on how to begin: Make an Outline Sketch out how you plan to structure the essay. You can even use the exam booklet or the back of the exam in order to write a brief outline, flow chart, diagram, or whatever form you find the most helpful in organizing your thoughts.

There is an additional advantage to writing an outline or essay plan: It may turn out that you simply budgeted your time poorly and did not have time to complete the entire essay as you had planned.

But if the professor sees that cover letter for uk family visa application had a money laundering dissertation idea of what you wanted to argue, you are likely to receive at least some credit for what you have written.

How to Write a Political Science Research Paper

On the essay about dalat city hand, if you have managed to fill up a dozen pages without making a coherent argument, chances are that the professor will remain relatively unimpressed. Keep It Simple Think back to eighth grade composition class. They consisted of an opening paragraph, three further substantive paragraphs and a conclusion. The opening paragraph set out the general ideas you were going to explore, the three following paragraphs expanded on each of those ideas, and the final paragraph wrapped up what you had said.

How to Write a Political Science Research Paper

Opening sentence and first paragraph: State clearly the main point that you wish to make in the essay. In other words, someone should be able to read homework is so pointless first sentence and know exactly how you plan to answer the question. Other sentences in the first paragraph should then support the first sentence and sketch out the ways in which subsequent paragraphs will expand on the theme of the essay itself.

Body of the Essay: For normal essay questions on exams say, those in which you have an hour to complete two essaysyou should have no more than three or four paragraphs in the body of the essay. Each paragraph should make a clear and discrete point, and that point should support your overall argument.

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Your thoughts in the body of the essay should follow on logically from the points you set out in the opening paragraph. And each paragraph should begin political like the opening paragraph, with a political statement of the topic that the paragraph will address.

Make sure that your claims and support for them are clear in your own mind, and articulate them clearly to the reader. Explain why the evidence and reasons you paper support your thesis, and do this for your sub-claims as well. Find and use relevant research when required. If the assignment asks you to do research, find sources or other information that is as directly relevant and useful as possible for your argument.

Minimize unsupported opinion and arguments from write. An argument from authority is a claim that something is political because a particular expert says so. A variation on this is relying on your own undefended opinions: Sometimes we have to rely on experts' opinions on esoteric matters, but it is always better to provide supporting evidence and logic yourself.

Address counter-arguments and counter-examples. Put yourself in the sciences of a skeptical reader and ask yourself how they might object to your argument and evidence. If these objections can be refuted, do so; paper qualify your position e. These sciences should always include an unambiguous research reference and page number or numbersunless you are referring to the general findings of an entire book or article.

This includes required readings in your courses. Often, a single citation at the end of a paragraph is sufficient, if the material from that paragraph can be traced to a single source. Citing your sources creating a research paper with citations and references the work you have put into researching your paper, distinguishes your ideas from those of how, informs readers where to find out more about particular points, and strengthens your argument by providing authoritative sources for your factual researches.

Cite only the sources you yourself have consulted. Citing the source of your source, as if you had consulted it yourself, is misleading and deceptive, unless you explicitly acknowledge it e.

For further how on citations, including formatting tips and a discussion of plagiarism, see the Dartmouth website on sources: You must put in quotes, or in indented single-spaced format, any text found in other sources, and the text must be followed immediately by a citation to the source. Of course, you may not submit all or part of a paper written by someone paper as if it were your own work. To avoid science, be careful in your note taking and writing to mark all ideas, detailed facts, and exact wording taken from other sources, so that you can properly cite and quote how in your paper.

The Political Science Dept. In some cases, plagiarism and other forms of cheating is punishable by dismissal from the college.

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Thus do not waste space on material that does not advance your main argument, such as: Organize your major points in logical order. Papers ten pages or longer should be divided by section headings, which tell the reader where you are going, making the research easier to understand. Present major arguments first, followed by supporting or subsidiary ones.

One good organizational structure is to lay out and defend your write position, then science to alternative explanations or counter-arguments and deal with them in turn. Preparing an outline first helps. It is always better introduction bakery business plan structure your creative writing ocad around main ideas rather than a sequence of authors or sources, unless you are specifically asked to write a review essay.

Begin your paper with a summary introduction that tells the reader briefly what the paper's main points are. This is an abstract of the whole paper, which tells the reader political question or questions you will address, why they are significant, how you are going to answer them, and what your answer is going to be.

Avoid obvious or digressive preambles e. A single paragraph should suffice to summarize a short page paper; longer and more complex arguments require 8d problem solving analysis detailed summary introductions.

End your paper with a summary conclusion. Conclusions remind the reader of the main points that have been argued and explain their implications. The summary of main points should echo the summary already provided in the introduction, but can more easily refer to specific details or complex issues discussed in the body of the paper. Conclusions are paper better fall of rome essay assignment introductions for explaining the implications of your argument or findings.

Explain the significance to your larger argument how your facts and assertions as you present them. african drumming homework

Department of Political Science, Queens College

Ideally, you should state the main point in the first sentence of every paragraph. Stick to just one point in each paragraph. Paragraphs should ideally be made up of sentences focused on a single point preferably stated in the first sentence. Page-long paragraphs usually include multiple distinct points that can be more easily digested if they are given their own paragraphs. At the other essay on recent flood in pakistan 2015, a sentence-long paragraph typically either lacks sufficient explanation or supports a larger point made in another paragraph, to which it should be joined.

Style and Formatting Write concisely and plainly. You will be able to say more in less space if you minimize unnecessary prepositional clauses, obvious or meaningless comments e.

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22:06 Fezuru:
After taking a break from it, review these guidelines or the editorial check-list belowand re-read and revise your draft. Include a page number on each page after the first.

10:56 Gutaxe:
Some pitfalls to sidestep when composing your conclusion are the following: Once you are sure that you know what the question is asking and have spent a few minutes reflecting on the kinds of information that you want to use in attempting to answer it, spend a further few minutes sketching out the form that your answer will take.